Many different types of cancer can affect the kidneys. The most common type is renal cell carcinoma (RCC), which accounts for more than 80% of all kidney cancers. Rarer types of kidney cancer include transitional cell cancer, which develops in the lining of the kidneys and usually affects men who are 50 years of age or over, and Wilms’ tumour, a rare type of kidney cancer that affects children. Around 338,000 new cases of kidney cancer were diagnosed worldwide in 2012, making it the twelfth most common cancer, with the highest rates recorded in Northern America. The 5 year survival of patients with kidney cancer is 74% in the United States. ...Read more » Kidney cancer can sometimes be treated with surgery, depending on the type and stage of the disease. In some cases, when other medical conditions are present and/or the cancer has spread, surgery is no longer a treatment option. When a small tumour is present, your doctor may recommend freezing the tumour (cryotherapy) or using radio wave treatment (radiofrequency ablation), in which the tumour is burned away. In Wilms’ tumour, the most common type of kidney cancer in children, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery are the standard treatments, depending on the stage of the disease when diagnosed.