Urothelial cancers are a multifocal process, encompassing carcinomas of the bladder, ureters, and renal pelvis at a ratio of 50:3:11. Urothelial carcinoma, also known as transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), is by far the most common type of bladder cancer, starting in the urothelial cells that line the inside of the bladder. Urothelial cells also line other parts of the urinary tract, such as the part of the kidney that connects to the ureter, the ureters, and the urethra. Patients with bladder cancer sometimes have other tumours in these places and so the entire urinary tract needs to be checked. Patients with cancer of the upper urinary tract have a chance of developing bladder cancer...Read more » The global incidence of bladder cancer was 430,000 in 2012. Patients with cancer of the upper urinary tract have a 30% to 50% chance of developing cancer of the bladder at some point in their lives, whilst patients with bladder cancer have a 2% to 3% chance of developing cancer of the upper urinary tract.